The domain of electrophysiological diagnostics comprises the study of nervous system functions (such as optical and locomotor systems) carried out by measuring electrokinetic potential in the human body.
Intracranial, intramuscular or intraneural potential is measured after excitation by either a spontaneous movement of bodily parts or a special stimulus such as a short electric impulse or a sharp sound.
Neurophysiological methods construe a third pillar of neurological diagnostics in line with the visual methods of CT (computer tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), laboratory testing and cerebral spine fluid analysis.
Peripheral Nerve Conduction Study
The conduction velocity of sensory and motor nerves is measured by electric stimulation of the corresponding nerve endings in appendages.
Nervous conductivity is tested by administering electric stimulation to the nerve and inciting it to transmit an impulse to the muscle. Electrodes are attached to skin over the muscle to measure the response impulse. This procedure is repeated twice for the same nerve on different stretches thereof, in order to obtain the correct value of measurement.
The speed of conductivity in sensorial nerves is measured by response impulses of the nerve stimulated elsewhere.
These methods are used to identify sites of damage and compression of the nerve as well as polyneuropathy. This is also used to obtain data about a possible injury to spinal nerve roots (for example, invertebral cartilage hernia or displacement) or diseases that affect both muscle and nervous tissue (myasthenia or Lambert-Eathon syndrome).
Electroneuromyography is a method of research of electric potentials occurring in muscle fiber in different functional states (such as rest, light exertion, or maximum exertion). Conducting this research on different muscle groups allows us to establish a differential diagnosis of medical conditions afflicting muscle tissue (myopathy).
Induced potentials of the cerebral cortex occur during various kinds of stimulation (including acoustic and visual stimulation, as well as electric stimulation of the skin). Muscular contractions that occur when the cerebral cortex is stimulated electrically are considered to be magnetically induced potentials.
Induced Auditory Potentials
This method comprises audio stimulation of the auditory nerve by brief rapid alternating sounds transmitted over headphones. Skin electrodes attached to the scalp record electric activity that determines the capacity of the auditory nerve as well as auditory pathways in the middle and lower parts of brain stem. This research is used to diagnose such diseases as auditory nerve neurinoma, multiple sclerosis, hypoxic brain damage resulting from oxygen deprivation and other diseases.
Induced Visual Potentials
This method is similar to induced auditory potentials. The technique constitutes visual stimulation of the retina by means of a picture displayed on a computer. The excitation of the visual nerve is communicated to the brain and recorded by skin electrodes attached to the scalp. The scope of electrical activity lets us evaluate the functionality of vision system and diagnose any affliction resulting from, among other things, multiple sclerosis.
Induced Somatosensory Potentials
Repeated stimulation of peripheral nerves causes excitation communicated through the spinal cord and recorded by skin electrodes attached to the scalp. In this fashion we determine the functional extent to which cerebral and cerebrospinal nerves have been damaged. This technique is used to diagnose multiple sclerosis, spinal tumors and brain death.
Our clinic employs all the main techniques of neurophysiological diagnostics. We have at our disposal computerized equipment to measure induced potentials, carry out functional diagnostic procedures, and perform neurography and electromyography.